〈26〉3-10 “ko” , “so” , “a” and “do”

                   〈26〉  ◆ chap 3  " The Japanese expressions & their secrets ! "   

                                  part 10. "ko","so","a" and "do"


These four letters, "ko", "so" and "a", are used to refer to something, depending
         」「」  「」         
on the distance or length of time, and "do" is used to ask a question.


             The most common examples are “kore”, “sore”, “are” and “dore”.
                                                                これ」「それ」「あれ」 「どれ

The word “kore”  is "this" in English and "esto" in Spanish. It is used to describe things that you have, things that are close to you, or things that happen to you.

The word “sore” is "that" in English and “eso” in Spanish. It is used to describe something that the person in front of you has, or something that is a little further away from you, or a matter.

The word “are” is the same as “that” in English, but in Spanish it has its own word
"aquello", which is used to describe something that someone far away has, something that is quite far away from you, or a matter. 

And “dore” is a question word, in English it's "which?" and in Spanish it's "cual?, are used when there are various things or events and you ask what it is.

Note also that the accent is pronounced with the first sound low for ‘kore’, ‘sore’ and ‘are’, and with the first sound high for ‘dore’.

                 For example.


"This is a flower",   "That is a dog",   "That is a house".    "Which is the animal?"
"Esto es una flor",  "Eso es un perro", "Aquello es una casa"  "Cuál es el animal?"

                        …and so on. (top: English, bottom: Spanish)

       The word “dore” is always followed by a "ga" for emphasis. 
                                           So there is no way to say 「どれは・・・?」.


                Its companions are “kono”, “sono”, “ano” and “dono”.
                  「この」「その」「あの」  「どの

The words “kore”, “sore”, “are” and “dore” can be subjects or objects, but “kono" “sono”, “ano” and “dono” are used as adjectives, modifying the following noun, and are not subjects or objects.

                  For example.

 「この花はバラです」、  「その犬は小さいです」、   「あの家は安全です」、
    "This flower is a rose",      "That dog is little",           "That house is safe".
    "Esta flor es una rosa",     "Ese perro es pequeño",   "Aquella casa es seguro"

                                       "Which car is a Porsche?"
                                     "Qué coche es un Porsche?"

Yes, in English there is no distinction between “kore” and “kono”, “are” and “ano”, 
and “sono” and “ano” are also "that". However, in Spanish, as in Japanese, there 
are different types of words.

                A mountain of  《 “ko”, “so”, “a” and “do” words 》

In addition to “kore”, “sore”, “are” and “dore”, or “kono" “sono”, “ano” and “dono”,

there are many other 《 “ko”, “so”, “a” and “do” words 》in Japanese. They are also

commonly used “ko" is for close, “so" for a little further away, “a” for very far away, 

and “do" for questions.

                                           Here are some of them.

  「ここ」、 「そこ」、 「あそこ」、    「どこ
  (koko)     (soko)      (asoko)          (doko?)
  (here)    (there)   (over there)      (where?)

    「こっち」、「そっち」、 「あっち」、    「どっち
          (kocchi)     (socchi)       (acchi)          (docchi?)
    (this way)  (that way)   (that way)    (which way?) 

      「このへん」、「そのへん」、 「あのへん」、 「どのへん
               (konohen)      (sonohen)         (anohen)          (donohen?)
      (around here)  (around there)  (around there) (which part?)

   「こんな」、 「そんな」、  「あんな」、     「どんな
 (konna)       (sonna)        (anna)          (donna?)
  (like this) (like that)  (like that)    (what kind of?)

      「こういう」、 「そういう」、  「ああいう」、   「どういう
          (kooiu)         (sooiu)              (aaiu)            (dooiu?)
     (like this)   (like that)    (like that)     (what kind of?)

   「これだけ」、 「それだけ」、  「あれだけ」、     「どれだけ
  (koredake)    (soredake)       (aredake)         (doredake?)
    (only this)  (only that)    (only that)        (how much?)

There are countless variations. You will learn it through conversation. Learn little by little. Please note that the English and Spanish in brackets have been added for clarity and that some of the nuances may be slightly different.

Note that the accents are all pronounced with the first sound low in "ko", "so" and "a", and the first sound high in "do". 

             Finally, a few words of caution!

As I said at the beginning of this article, "ko", "so", "a" and "do" are used to describe things and people, but they often refer to a sense of time.

For example, as for the words “korekara”, “sorekara", “arekara", “itsukara?”, you may wonder what they mean. But actually, about the words  “kore”, “sore” or “are” refer to time or period. In other words, “korekara” means "from this moment" ,“sorekara" means "from that moment" and “itsukara?” means  “from which moment?” or “from when?”.

However, “konoaida” is not "this moment" but "the other day". So please be careful. 
But “sonoaida” and “anoaida" are rarely used.

The words “ano” and “are” are also used to refer to secret matters or to make fun of. For example “konoyo” means this world, “anoyo” means the afterlife, and “asoko” means sexual organs. (lol)

Also, sometimes, in conversations with close friends, "kore wa" becomes "korya (ah)" and "sore wa" becomes "sorya (ah)". You have to learn them one by one over time while enjoying the conversation. Take your time, don't rush!  I wish you the best!

                      See you next time!

          ーーー  The next post will be                         


                            <27> chap 3 "The Japanese expressions & their secrets!"

                                                part 11.  imperative and “kudasai”(please)

                                            This is published  




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